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Table 1 Reported cases of GPA with cranial neuropathies

From: Successful rituximab treatment of granulomatosis with polyangiitis with cranial neuropathies

Reference Age and sex Signs and symptoms Cranial nerve involvement MRI findings Treatment for induction Outcome
[7] 23F Otalgia, facial paralysis, dysphagia V, IX, X Mass on right skull base encasing the carotid sheath GC + CY No recurrence for 1 year
[8] 42F Dysphagia, paresis of fifth nerve, genioglossus, trapezius, and sternocleidomastoid V, IX, X, XI, XII Normal GC + oral CY No recurrence for 30 months
[6] 73F Dysarthria, left hearing loss, paresis of hypoglossal nerve VIII, IX, X, XII Mass on left skull base encasing the internal carotid artery GC + intravenous CY Failure for re-induction
[9] 35 M Dysphagia, paresis of vagus and accessory nerve X, XI Not performed (brain CT was normal) GC + CY No recurrence for 6 months
[10] 30F Dysarthria, paresis of hypoglossal nerve XII Right-sided retropharyngeal mass effacing the carotid sheath GC + MTX Not described
[11] 42 M Hearing loss, facial nerve palsy VII, VIII Not described GC + oral CY Failure for re-induction
[12] 69 M Diplopia VI Normal GC + oral CY No recurrence for 4 months
[12] 31F Hoarseness, dysphagia, hypoglossal nerve and abducens nerve palsies VI, X, XI, XII Normal GC + CY Not described
[13] 56F Facial palsy and hearing loss VII, VIII Mass on central and posterior skull base adjoinin the clivus and jugular foramen GC Not described
  1. GC glucocorticoid, MTX methotrexate; CY cyclophosphamide