Skip to main content

Table 2 Zonal structure of hyaline articular cartilage: from the articulating surface down to the subchondral bone [6, 7]

From: Shear bioreactors stimulating chondrocyte regeneration, a systematic review

Zone % Collagen Collagen alignment Shape of cell Proteoglycan Property
The superficial (tangential) 10–20 Small diameter, densely packed collagen fibers Parallel to the cartilage Flattened, discoidal shapes Low proteoglycan Low permeability
The middle, or transitional 40–60 Arcade-like structure Spherical in shape Reaches its maximum
The deep zone/radial 30% Collagen large fibers Perpendicular to the articular surface Columnar organization. elongated Proteoglycan much lower than in the middle zone “Tidemark”
The calcified zone transitions into the subchondral bone