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Table 1 Cardiac differentiation protocols

From: Toward the realization of cardiac regenerative medicine using pluripotent stem cells

PublicationDifferentiation methodMediaCoating matrixMesoderm inductionCardiac specificationDifferentiation efficiency
Kehat et al. [4]EB formationKO DMEM + 20%FBSGelatinNANA8.1% beating EBs
Laflamme et al. [5]MonolayerRPMI1640 + B27MatrigelActivin A, BMP4NA> 30%β-MHC(+)CMs
Yang et al. [6]EB formationStempro34GelatinActivin A, BMP4, bFGFVEGF, DKK1, bFGF40–50% TNNT(+)CMs
Tran et al. [7]EB formationKO DMEM + 15%FBSGelatinWNT3ANAEB formation 10-folds increase (vs control)
Elliot et al. [8]EB formation or monolayerLI-APELMatrigelActivin A, BMP4, bFGF, VEGF, SCF, WNT3ANAEB:38% Nkx2.5(+) cells
Monolayer:24% Nkx2.5(+) cells
Kattman et al. [9]EB formationStempro34NAActivin A, BMP4, bFGFVEGF, DKK1, TGFβi, BMPi> 60% TNNT(+)CMs
Zhang et al. [10]MonolayerRPMI1640 + B27GelatinActivin A, BMP4, bFGFNOGGIN, RA/RAi, DKK1RA:50.7% ± 1.7%
RAi:64.7% ± 0.9%
Willems et al. [11]EB formationStempro34GelatinActivin A, BMP4, bFGFbFGF,
IWR-1, triiodothyronine
30%MYH6(+)CMs
Zhang et al. [12]Monolayer (matrix sandwich)RPMI1640 + B27 insulin(−)MatrigelActivin A, BMP4, bFGFNA40–92% TNNT(+)CMs
Lian et al. [13]MonolayerRPMI1640B27 insulin(−)Matrigel or SynthemaxCHIR99021IWP285%TNNT(+)CMs
Burridge et al. [14]MonolayerCDM3VitronectinCHIR99021Wnt-C5980–95% TNNT(+)CMs
Devalla et al. [15]EB formationBPELGelatinActivin A, BMP4, CHIR99021, SCF, VEGFRA50%Nkx2.5(+)cells
Protze et al. [16]EB formationStempro34NAActivin A, BMP4, bFGFIWP2, VEGF, BMP4, RA, bFGFi, TGFβi5%Nkx2.5(+)cells
55%Nkx2.5(−)SANLPCs
Tohyama et al. [17]Monolayer (multilayer plates)RPMI1640 + B27 insulin(−)Fibronectin or type1 collagenCHIR99021, BMP4IWR-180%TNNT(+)CMs
  1. Modified table taken from [18]
  2. Abbreviations: bFGF basic fibroblast growth factor, bFGFi bFGF inhibitor, BMP bone morphologic protein, BMPi BMP inhibitor, CMs cardiomyocytes, DKK Dickkopf, DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide, EB embryoid body, FBS fetal bovine serum, KO knockout, MLC myosin light chain, N/A not applicable or not available, TGFβ transforming growth factor β, TGFβi TGFβ inhibitor, TNNT troponin T, SALPC sinoatrial node-like progenitor cells, SCF stem cell factor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor