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Table 1 Extracellular vesicle subcategories

From: Extracellular vesicles in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis and therapeutics

EV subgroup Size (nm) Formation Markers
Exosome (small EV) 30–150 Fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane ESCRT-associated proteins (Tetraspanins, ALIX, and TSG101)
Microvesicle (medium/large EV) 50–1000 Direct budding and cleavage of the plasma membrane Cytoskeletal and plasma membrane proteins (origin cell-specific markers)
Apoptotic body (large EV) >1000 Cytoplasmic fragmentation during programmed cell death Proteins associated with the Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and other cellular organelles.