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Table 1 Relation of TLRs with chronic inflammatory diseases

From: New application of anti-TLR monoclonal antibodies: detection, inhibition and protection

Disease TLR Roles for TLR on disease
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) TLR4
TLR9
TLR4 mRNA expression is increased in the liver of NASH patients [49]. TLR9 recognizes host-derived mitochondrial DNA and induces inflammation [47, 48].
Psoriasis TLR7
TLR9
Antimicrobial peptide LL37, a factor of psoriasis, associates with self-derived DNA and stimulate TLR9 in pDCs [67]. Administration of imiquimod, a TLR7 ligand, induces psoriasis-like dermatitis via T cell activation with IL-17/IL-23 production [71] .
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) TLR7
TLR9
TLR7 and TLR9 contribute to the production of autoantibody in SLE model mouse [34, 35, 72]. Especially, TLR7 is thought as an inducer of the phenotype [34, 35, 73, 74]. Controversially, protective effect of TLR9 on SLE is also reported [73, 75, 76].
Celiac Disease TLR7
TLR8
Suggestive association of the SNP on TLR7 and TLR8 with celiac disease is found by genome-wide association study (GWAS) [77].
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) TLR4
TLR9
TLR4 expresses on β cells in islets and induces signaling by recognizing HMGB1 [78]. TLR9 contributes to the activation of T cells in NOD mice, a model of T1D [69, 79, 80].
Rheumatoid arthritis TLR8
TLR9
Human TLR8 transgenic mice develop arthritis spontaneously [81]. Cathepsin K is required for the response of TLR9, and an inhibitor of Cathepsin K attenuates TH17 polarization and arthritis [68].