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Table 1 List of a few of the different modifications of PRX, the various processability of PRXs, and the effect of molecular mobility on cellular functions and their possible applications

From: Polyrotaxanes as emerging biomaterials for tissue engineering applications: a brief review

No. Type of PRX Usage form Type of study Notable finding1 Possible application Reference
1 Methylated PRX Thin coating In vitro; hMSC H.Mf: ↓ RhoA signaling; L.Mf:↑ RhoA signaling Modulating stem cell differentiation into adipogenic or osteogenic [45]
2 Methylated PRX Thin coating In vitro; iPSC H.Mf: ↑ Rac1, ↑TnT2; L.Mf:↓ Rac1, ↓TnT2 Enhancing cardiomyocyte differentiation from iPSCs [46]
3 bFGF immobilized S-PRX Thin coating In vitro; hMSC H.Mf: ↑ Nanog, ↑Oct4, Cytoplasmic YAP; L.Mf:↓ Nanog, ↓Oct4, Nuclear YAP Retention of hMSCs stemness during expansion phase [47]
4 BMP2/S-PRX Polyelectrolyte complex In vitro; MC3T3-E1 More tolerant to noggin deactivation, prolonged Smad signaling Enhancing osteogenic differentiation [50]
5 BMP2/S-PRX Polyelectrolyte complex coated onto collagen scaffold In Vivo; mouse cranial defect Rapid bone regeneration Potential bone graft substitute [51]
6 BMP2 tethered S-PRX Thin coating In vitro; MC3T3-E1 Tethering BMP2 to S-PRX enhances cell adhesion and osteogenic gene expression Enhancing osteogenic differentiation [52]
7 PEG crosslinked with aminated PRX Porous scaffold In vitro; primary rabbit chondrocytes Interconnected pores in scaffold; fast water absorption and swelling of hydrogel; very good cell adhesion Potential scaffold for cartilage regeneration [54]
8 PEG crosslinked with aminated PRX and terminal ester linkages Porous scaffold In vitro; primary rabbit chondrocytes Enhanced trapping of cells; tunable degradation of scaffold; enhanced GAG production Potential scaffold for cartilage regeneration [55]
9 Cholesterol-modified PRX Porous scaffold In vitro; primary rabbit chondrocytes Enhanced cell adhesion; tunable degradation of scaffold; enhanced GAG production Potential scaffold for cartilage regeneration [56]
10 RGD-conjugated PRX Injectable scaffold In vitro; L929 mouse fibroblasts Enhanced biocomaptibility and cell adhesion Injectable hydrogel scaffold [58]
11 RGD-conjugated PRX Thin coating In vitro; NIH3T3 Rapid integrin binding; more cellular spreading Improving ligand-cell interaction in biomaterial surfaces [38]
12 VEGF-immobilized S-PRX Thin coating In vitro; HUVEC L.Mf: enhanced cell proliferation; increased RhoA, Pdgf, ang1; increased endothelial network Enhancing angiogenesis [60]
13 HBEGF-immobilized S-PRX Thin coating In vitro; HEPG2 H.Mf: cytoplasmic YAP retention; increased albumin secretion Proliferating functional hepatic cells; liver tissue engineering [61]
14 RGD-conjugated PRX Thin coating In vitro; PC12 Increased cellular adhesion Modulating neuronal differentiation [63]
15 RGD-conjugated PRX Thin coating In vitro; P19CL6 Early formation of beating cardiomyocytes Modulating cardiomyocyte differentiation [63]
16 Methylated PRX Thin Coating In vitro; C2C12 Enhanced myogenesis related genes Muscle regeneration [64]
17 PRX-crosslinked collagen Corneal membrane In vivo; rabbit corneal injury Enhanced remodeling of corneal epithelium and stroma Corneal regeneration [65]
18 Methylated PRX Thin Coating In vivo, rat subcutaneous implantation H.Mf: induced collagen fibrillogenesis; suppressed recruitment of the macrophage Collagen fibrillogenesis and inflammation control [62]
  1. 1H.Mf, high molecular mobility; L.Mf, low molecular mobility; ↑, increased; ↓, decreased